Prostate synthesisImmunoglobulin, with the help of specific secretions, regulates the consistency of semen and controls the process of urination and ejaculation. Pathogens that invade the cavity of this organ can cause prostatitis-an inflammation that occurs in an acute or chronic form.
Pathogenesis and mechanism
Prostatitis begins with the penetration and reproduction of pathogens in the organ cavity. These are extracellular pathogens or their own microbiota from the surface of the skin or mucous membranes:
- Escherichia coli;
In the presence of sexually transmitted diseases or infectious diseases of internal organs, the following substances can penetrate into the prostate cavity:
- Pale treponema;
- Ureaplasma urealyticum;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
- Koch bacillus.
In the prostate, the pathogenic flora rises from the urethra. Less common-the flow of lymph through the blood or infected organs. Many predisposing factors affect the speed of disease development and the intensity of symptoms:
- Abnormal bladder neck structure;
- Urethral stricture;
- The consequences of postoperative catheterization;
- Decreased immunity in the context of chronic and systemic diseases, hypothermia, body overload, and hard work;
- Outflow of blood and lymph that invades the pelvic area;
- Promiscuity or irregular sex life.
The active blood supply and moist, enclosed environment in the prostate cavity promote the unhindered reproduction of pathogens. The secret produced by the gland thickens and its outflow is disturbed. The infiltration gradually accumulates in the lumen and inflammation progresses.
The course of acute prostatitis
Primary inflammation usually develops rapidly. On average, patients feel their clinical symptoms 5-7 days after infection. Its symptoms are so vivid that it is impossible not to pay attention to them:
- Sustained severe pain in the perineum, radiating to the scrotum, penis, and anus;
- Diuretic disorders: frequent urination, painful urination, delusions, dullness, intermittent cloudy urine:
- Serous or purulent discharge in the urethra with a pungent and unpleasant odor;
- General poisoning: chills, sharp rise in body temperature, weakness and weakness.
Most patients with acute prostatitis have impaired sexual function. Either arousal is completely absent, or it does not result in a normal erection and the ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Semen may contain pus or blood.
The symptoms of bacterial prostatitis depend on the morphological changes and stage of the disease:
- The catarrhal inflammation affects the ducts of the organs at the beginning and causes deep dull pain. Usually there is no fever and the health condition is generally satisfactory.
- The inflammatory process captures one or two lobes of the gland-the progression of follicular prostatitis. The tissue expands and the amount of infiltration in the lumen increases. The pain keeps getting worse and worsens with exercise. Difficulty urinating.
- When the entire body of the prostate is affected, the substantial phase occurs. The function of the bladder and rectum is difficult due to the strong compression of the inflamed and swollen walls of the glands. The pain in the perineum becomes unbearable. Purulent and bloody impurities appeared in the urine, and the body temperature rose above 39°C.
Delays in treatment can cause chronic diseases. Complications may occur: urethral obstruction, fistula, abscess, pyelonephritis, sepsis.
It develops from an untreated acute disease, but it is more commonly formed as an independent disease. Delayed inflammation is caused by insufficient immune response to infection penetration, low number of pathogenic microorganisms, or sterility of the disease. In the latter case, the pathology is caused by stagnant secretions, disordered prostate tissue, and unobstructed ducts.
The symptoms of poisoning and severe pain of chronic bacterial prostatitis only appear when they worsen. During the incubation period, the disease manifests as periodic urinary system diseases and physical discomfort. On cold nights, the urge to go to the toilet is more frequent. Diuresis is sometimes accompanied by a slight burning sensation. Erectile dysfunction is very common.
Chronic prostatitis can last for several years, and occasionally flare up suddenly. The long-term course of the disease can lead to the formation of fibrous areas in the parenchyma, leading to the development of impotence, infertility and tumors.
How to diagnose and treat prostatitis
If you suspect the development of prostate inflammation, you should contact a urologist. The presumptive diagnosis was confirmed by bacterial culture of glandular secretions. If it is not available, check urethral smears, urine samples, and semen. In addition to bacterial seeding, blood and urine tests are also checked, and prostate ultrasound is performed.
The treatment of acute infectious prostatitis is carried out in the clinical setting of urology.
- The main focus is on inhibiting pathogens, relieving inflammation and preventing complications. The patient was prescribed a course of antibiotics. Depending on the infection that caused the disease, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, or penicillins were injected. Duration of treatment: from a few days to 2-4 weeks.
- In order to restore urination function and relieve acute symptoms, a combination of muscle relaxants, anti-inflammatory analgesics and antispasmodics are prescribed.
- Specific treatments are supplemented with vitamin and mineral preparations and immunomodulators.
In the early stages, simple inflammation will heal completely.
Chronic prostatitis does not require hospitalization. Patients receive antibiotic treatment at home and comply with necessary restrictions.
At the same time, it is necessary to carry out a course of treatment for possible diseases: bronchitis, pyelonephritis, cholecystitis, genitourinary system infection.
The main treatment without aggravation is supplemented by physical therapy methods: ultrasound procedures, magnetic therapy, laser irradiation.
During treatment, alcohol, spicy spices, marinades, kimchi, fat, canned and smoked food must be excluded. It is recommended to add fresh herbs, vegetables, nuts, fish, and lean meat to the diet.
The success of treating the chronic form in each case depends on the duration of the disease, existing organic tissue damage, and accompanying diseases of kidney and bladder function.